Monday, December 18, 2017

Tamil Islamic Literature ( Prof.H.Mujeeb Rahman )

Tamil Islamic Literature refers to the various literary works on the Islam religion that were composed by Tamil Muslim poets from the Tamil country. When the Islamic religion

spread across Tamil Nadu, numerous Muslims lived like the native Tamils. They learnt and studied Tamil literary and grammatical works and were properly educated. The Muslim Tamil people composed various poetic and literary works that were related to their religion. A few of the important works in Tamil Islamic literature can be mentioned as Nayakarpuranam, Nakurppuranam, Mukaiytinpuranam and Cirappuranam.

The Muslim poets created several exciting works in each one of the literary genres found in Tamil literature namely, kalampakam, antati, parani, ulakovai, tutu, catakam, pillaittamil and vannam. Moreover, the poets of Islamic religion wrote almost all kinds of literary compositions for their sacred religion, similar to those literary and poetic works that had been composed for Vaisnavism, Shaivism and Jainism. These poets also composed various philosophical and rhythmical verses which can be compared to the poems of Tayumanavar and Arunakirinatar (Arunagirinathar) respectively.

The Muslim poets from the Tamil country composed some fascinating prose works during the twentieth century. The poets liberally used and implemented certain Arabic terms and words in their compositions of prose or poetry in Tamil language, in order to explain various ideas, concepts and principles pertaining to the sacred Islamic religion. These were also utilised in certain non-religious literary works as well such as short stories and essays. This was done to elaborately narrate the conversation that takes place in a typical Tamil Muslim family, as well as to vividly describe anything that was related to their traditions, customs, rituals and manners.

However, in general, very minute difference is evident when the style and pattern of composition of the Muslim authors and poets are compared with that of the other Tamil poets and scholars. Most of the literary and poetic works composed by these writers were in actuality, written in an emotional, smooth flowing and beautiful style of composition.

One of the most important works in Tamil Islamic literature comprises of Cirappuranam or Seerapuranam written by the Tamil Muslim poet Umaru Pulavar. The literary work narrates the history of Prophet Mohammed Nabi and the works consists of 5,027 poems in Tamil language. Other literary works include Nanmanimalai and Kunankuti Natar Patirruppattantati which were composed by the poet saint Kunankuti Mastan. Poet Sheik Abdul Kadar Nayinar Labbai was a linguist and created one kalampakam, two talapuranams, and an antati on Mecca city.

The Muslim poet Ibrahim composed in various types of literary genre, including antati, pillaittamil, kalampakam and tiruppukal. The works were rich with ideas and principles of Islamic religion. Ibrahim composed a total of fourteen poetical works. Vannak Kajnciyap Pulavar composed the work of Mokitinpuranam which describes the tale of an enlightened soul who stayed at the Nakur Mosque. Poet Muhammad Hussain constructed an ethical work in kural venpa, entitled Penputtimalai, aimed for women. Panaikkulam Abdul Majid, a twentieth century poet and scholar, composed the Tamil Nattu Islamiyap Pulavarkal and the Kavippuncolai, Ilakkiyappunka.

The most significant work in Tamil Islamic literature of this century is perhaps the work of Nencil Nirainta Napimani, which depicts the life of Prophet Muhammad and his gospel in Tamil language. The work contains minimal admixture of foreign loan words and comprises of kannikal verses that is rhythmic poems of two lines. The work is well known for its smooth flowing and lucid composition style that enthrals and captivates the minds of the readers. The scholarship of the author Cirajpak Kavirayar in Tamil and his enthusiasm for composing an exciting work are revealed in each one of the poems in the work.

 Kunankuti Mastan, also known as Kunangudi Mastan, was a revered Tamil Muslim poet and scholar who composed various literary and poetic works related to the Islamic religion and culture. His compositions are considered as valuable contributions to Tamil Islamic LiteratureKunankuti Mastan lived from the year 1788 to 1835 and his real name was Sultan Abdul Kadir (Sultan Ab Dul Qadir). Kunankuti Mastan became a hermit or sanyasi in Tamil, and lived the life of a recluse mendicant and spends his time in composing poetic works that described the ideas and customs of Islam. He also wrote numerous philosophical hymns which exemplified the essence of Islamic thought and culture. Kunankuti Mastan or Sultan Abdul Kadir eventually gained immense popularity as a poet and author in the Tamil country.

However the verses composed by Kunankuti Mastan or Kunangudi Mastan portrayed ecclectic views in general. Several of his poetic works bear strong resemblance to the composition style and the manner of expression of high philosophical thoughts of Tayumanavar. Thus the verses constructed by Kunankuti Mastan, alternatively known as Sultan Abdul Kadir, consisted of a universal appeal and enthralled the minds of the readers. There are a number of poems and hymns that were composed by Kunankuti Mastan, which are most popular for their articulation, diction, presentation and profundity of connotation. The much revered Tamil Muslim poet acquired mastery in composing poems in the different types of versification as mention in Tamil literary traditions.

A number of Hindu and other Tamil poets have mentioned Kunankuti Mastan with reverence in their literary works. For instance, the well known poet Caravanapperumalaiyar (Caravana Perumalaiyar) and the Tamil author Aiyacami Mudaliar composed poetical works, namely the Nanmanimalai and the Kunankuti Natar Patirruppattantati respectively, in honour and tribute to Kunankuti Mastan or Kunarikuti Mastan.

The popular Tamil Muslim poet liberally used colloquial words in his poems which attracted the general public and made it easy to be understood by the readers. Further more, Kunankuti Mastan composed his verse in a lucid, simple and smooth flowing manner which fascinated the readers. His poetic works are considered amongst the most significant contributions in Tamil literature. His literary and poetic works are renowned for their religious and philosophical theme, literary opulence and fascinating rhythm. 

Cirappuranam, also known as Seerapuranam, is considered as one of the best works of the Tamil Muslim poet Umaru Pulavar and is regarded as a significant contribution to Tamil Islamic literature. Syed Khader or Citakkati, a Tamil Muslim who lived in the seventeenth century, was well known for his munificence and for providing generous help to the poor and the needy. Citakkati invited Umaru Pulavar, who was then a poet in a royal court, and requested him to compose a poetical work that would vividly narrate the tale about the life of Prophet Muhammad and his teachings. Cittakati expressed his desire in sponsoring such a work that would relate to the core of his teachings. Umaru Pulavar agreed to his request and initiated composing the epic work of Cirappuranam. But before the work could be finished, Citakkati died.

It was then supported by another noble person named Abdul Kasim Marakkayar who decided to provide necessary financial support to the poet Umaru Pulavar and helped him in completing the epic work in Tamil Islamic literature. At the end of each hundredth verse in the Cirappuranam, Umaru Pulavar paid a tribute to Citakkati.

The literary work of Cirappuranam composed by Umaru Pulavar in Tamil language comprises of five thousand and twenty seven poems and the work describes a great and vital part about the tales related to the life of Prophet Muhammad Nabi. The rest of the story was written and completed by another author named Pani Ahmad Marakkayar, who was more popular under the pseudonym Cinnaccira. The term Cira is adopted from the Arabic word Sirat which literally means a biography. The work of Cirappuranam followed the Tamil literary traditions and thus comprises of various descriptions of the country (nattuppatalam) and the city (Nakarappatalam) as well. In the description provided by the poet about the country where Prophet Muhammad was born, there is only mention of the flora, fauna and avifauna found in the Tamil country, but not Arabia. Again according to the Tamil tradition, the country is segregated into the four-fold regional landscapes which are described accordingly.

Although the land of Arabia is a desert land, but the narrations available in the Tamil epic bears strong resemblance to the landscapes found in the Tamil country, where rivers would rise and flood during monsoons. Moreover the descriptions of the land of Arabia reminds about the people who reside in the mountainous regions of the Tamil nation; the musical instruments, the fruits, the millet fields and the rumbling streams that fall from the cliffs suggest the readers of the people of Tamil origins. The narration of the city of Mecca found in nakarappatalam is very similar to the description of the great city of Madurai in the Tamil country. Further more, it is stated that ivory, sandalwood, akilwood and other valuable articles of trade are available in the shopping centres of Mecca, which are generally found in Tamil Nadu.

The epic work of Cirappuranam, thus, highlights not only the patriotism of poet Umaru Pulavar for his motherland, but also his mind soaked in the ancient Tamil literary works. Similes and assonances are refreshingly utilised in the poems. The rhythm of the verses is also smooth and fascinates the minds of readers. The moderate use of Arabic words makes the work complex and difficult to read at some places for non-Muslims. The Tamil Muslims in Ceylon consider the work of Cirappuranam by Umaru Pulavar as the fundamental text for their religious life. 

எச்.முஜீப் ரஹ்மானின் நூற்கள்

நண்பர் முஜிபுர் ரகுமான் குமரிமாவட்டத்தைச் சேர்ந்தவர். பேராசிரியர். தமிழ்நாடு கலையிலக்கியப் பெருமன்றத்துடன் இணைந்து பணியாற்றுபவர். கலையிலக்கியப்பெருமனறத்திற்குள் பின்நவீனத்துவ இலக்கியக்கொள்கைகளையும் மார்க்ஸிய அரசியலையும் இணைப்பதற்காக நிகழ்ந்த விவாதங்களில் முதன்மையான குரல் என்று அவரைச் சொல்லமுடியும்

ஒரு காலத்தில் நாங்கள் தக்கலையில் நடுச்சாலையில் போக்குவரத்தை மறித்தபடி நின்று இலக்கியம்பேசுவதுண்டு. அவர் மார்க்ஸியத்தையும் பின்நவீனத்தையும் இணைக்க கிட்டத்தட்ட கங்கை காவேரி இணைப்புத்திட்டம் அளவுக்கு உழைத்துக்கொண்டிருந்த காலம் அது.
மீபுனைவு வகையில் தமிழில் எழுதத்தொடங்கியவர்களில் பிரேமும் முஜிபுர் ரகுமானும் முக்கியமானவர்கள். புனைவை ஒரு விளையாட்டாக, புதிராக இவர்கள் ஆக்கினர். அதைக்கொண்டு தொடர்புறுத்த முயன்றனர்.

எழுத்தாளர் ஜெயமோகன்

எச்.முஜீப் ரஹ்மானின் நூற்கள்
1) தேவதைகளின் சொந்தக் குழந்தை (சிறுகதை)
2) தேவதூதர்களின் கவிதைகள் (நாவல்)
3) மகாகிரந்தம் (நாவல்)
4) நான் ஏன் வஹாபி அல்ல? (ஆய்வு)
5) மறுவாசிப்பு,மறுசிந்தனை,மறுவிளக்கம் (கட்டுரை)
6) தியரி (ஆய்வு)
7) ஞானப்புகழ்ச்சிக்கு ஒரு நவீன உரை
8) மற்றமைகளை பேசுவது (கட்டுரை)
9) வெறுமொரு சலனம் ( கவிதை)
10)பின் நவீன கவிதைகள்
11) ஜலாலுதீன் ரூமி கவிதைகள்
12) ஒரு சூபியின் சுய சரிதை ( சிறுகதை)
13) நவீன தமிழ் அகராதி
14) ஆளுமை ஒரு சொல்லாடல் (சுயமுன்னேற்றம் )
15) பின்னை தலித்தியம் ( ஆய்வு)
16) பின் நவீன இஸ்லாம் ( கட்டுரை)
17) எதிர் வஹாபியம் ( ஆய்வு)
18) பிரதியின் உள்ளர்த்தமும் வெளியர்த்தமும் ( விமர்சனம்)
19)பின் நவீனத்துக்கு பிந்தைய கோட்பாடுகள் (கட்டுரை)
20) சூபி நூற்களில் சூபித்துவம் ( மதிப்புரை)
21) சூபி பேரகராதி
22) ஹமவோஸ்த் (ஆன்மீகம்)
23) தீர்க்கதரிசி (நாவல்)
24) நாட்டார் இசுலாம் (ஆய்வு)
25) உன்ன சொன்னா கோபம் வருதுல்ல ( கட்டுரை)

சூஃபி மாத இதழ்

விளக்கவுரை ஆய்வியல்(ஹெர்மெனிட்டிக்ஸ்) குறித்து

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